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Innovative Conservation Techniques for Bio-deteriorated and Soiled Ornamental stone in Urban Areas: Laser versus Plasma Vapour Cleaning.

Project Description and Objectives

It is well recognised that air pollution in modern urban agglomerates have deleterious effects not only on human health but also on a variety of earth materials including ornamental stone. The sulphating mechanism, by which atmospheric SO2, released by the combustion of fossil fuels in reacting with building materials promotes the growth of decay-inducing sulphate patinas is now regarded as playing only a minor role in urban stone decay due to a significant reduction of SO2 emissions in today's urban environments. On the contrary, air pollution from vehicular exhaust emissions (gasoline, diesel and even alternative fuels such as biofuels) are on the increase with a new cocktail of inorganic and organic pollutants characterizing urban air quality in European town centres: NOx, VOC (BTEX), PAH. In line with these changes in the air pollutants, biological colonization and bio-decay by bacteria and by lichens is rapidly becoming a predominant weathering feature on stone. The most common cleaning treatment is the application of biocidal agents that are often toxic to human beings and the environment.

Main aims of this study are:

A) Compare the biocidal effectiveness of two innovative techniques on selected ornamental stones: High Performance Laser vs Plasma vapour deposition
B) Evaluate their effects both in terms of removal of the biological patina and of soiling due to environmental urban pollutants.

Type of Contract and Benefits

The selected ESR 1 will be offered a full-time 36 months employment contract by the University of Evora The contract will include the following allowances:

Living Allowance (LA) = € 2771,01 per month corresponding to the monthly salary for the fellow before any deductions: contributions of both employers and employees to social security, pension, taxation.
Family allowance (FA) = 500€ per month. The LA will be paid only if the recruited ESR has a family* status at the time of recruitment.
Mobility Allowance (MA) = 600€ per month. The MA is a contribution to household, relocation and travel expenses.

*"Family" means persons linked to the researcher by marriage (or a relationship with equivalent status to a marriage recognised by the legislation of the country where this relationship was formalised) or dependent children who are actually being maintained by the researcher.

Doctoral Degree

ESR1will be awarded a joint Double Doctorate degree by the University of Evora (UEVORA) in cotutelle with the Polytechnic of Turin (POLITO).

ESR1 research project will involve secondments to Polytechnic of Turin (minimum 18 months) and Istituto de Ciencia dos Materiales (ICMA) (ICMA) of the CSIC in Zaragoza, Spain. Additional secondments to ED-ARCHMAT Beneficiaries and/or Partners may be planned according to ESR1 research needs.

Eligibility Criteria

Main Eligibility criteria are indicated in section ADMISSION RULES

ESR 1 Additional Eligibility Criteria
IELTS CERTIFICATE with a minimum score of 5.0.
One of the language certificates recognized equivalent to IELTS 5.0 by the Foreign Languages Centre and detained in the table (2018/19) published at the webpage: or a declaration of having a Ba. and/or M.Sc. degree issued by a University in which courses are taught in English, i.e. "The medium of instruction was English". Certificates not included in the list above will not be accepted.
Valid GRE® General Test, possessed by the application deadline.

ESR1 Specific Requirements

Master (2nd cycle equivalent according to the Bologna Process) Degree issued by an officially recognized academic institution which grants admission to PhD programmes in the country of issuance in one of the following fields: Earth Sciences, Engineering, Materials Science, Biology, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Conservation Science.

Foreign academic degrees and diplomas will be validated and recognized by the authorized personnel of the University of Evora and Polytechnic of Turin before enrolment in the double PhD degree.

Additional Requirements
Previous experience in one of the following areas will be considered advantageous:
Analytical techniques applied to CH materials.
Cleaning techniques applied to CH materials.
Building stone weathering and decay.

Application Deadline

The deadline for the online submission of completed application forms available under section APPLICATION of the ED-ARCHMAT website is 15th July 2018.

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